http://www.recitequran.com/tafsir/en.ibn-kathir/16:1

http://www.recitequran.com/tafsir/en.ibn-kathir/16:1

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Page 267

WHICH WAS REVEALED IN MAKKAH
﴿ بِسۡمِ ٱللَّهِ ٱلرَّحۡمَـٰنِ ٱلرَّحِيمِ

In the Name of Allah, the Most Gracious, the Most Merciful.

﴿ أَتَىٰٓ أَمۡرُ ٱللَّهِ فَلَا تَسۡتَعۡجِلُوهُ‌ۚ سُبۡحَـٰنَهُ ۥ وَتَعَـٰلَىٰ عَمَّا يُشۡرِكُونَ

(1. The Event ordained by Allah has indeed come, so do not seek to hasten it. Glorified and Exalted be He above all that they associate as partners with Him.)

WARNING ABOUT THE APPROACH OF THE HOUR

Allah is informing about the approach of the Hour in the past tense (in Arabic) in order to confirm that it will undoubtedly come to pass. This is like the following Ayat, in which the verbs appear in the past tense in Arabic:

﴿ ٱقۡتَرَبَ لِلنَّاسِ حِسَابُهُمۡ وَهُمۡ فِى غَفۡلَةٍ۬ مُّعۡرِضُونَ

(Mankind’s reckoning has drawn near them, while they turn away in heedlessness.)(21:1)

﴿ ٱقۡتَرَبَتِ ٱلسَّاعَةُ وَٱنشَقَّ ٱلۡقَمَرُ

(The Hour has drawn near, and the moon has been cleft.) (54:1)

﴿ فَلَا تَسۡتَعۡجِلُوهُ‌ۚ

(so do not seek to hasten it.) means, what was far is now near, so do not try to rush it. As Allah said,

﴿ وَيَسۡتَعۡجِلُونَكَ بِٱلۡعَذَابِ‌ۚ وَلَوۡلَآ أَجَلٌ۬ مُّسَمًّ۬ى لَّجَآءَهُمُ ٱلۡعَذَابُ وَلَيَأۡتِيَنَّہُم بَغۡتَةً۬ وَهُمۡ لَا يَشۡعُرُونَ يَسۡتَعۡجِلُونَكَ بِٱلۡعَذَابِ وَإِنَّ جَهَنَّمَ لَمُحِيطَةُۢ بِٱلۡكَـٰفِرِينَ

(And they ask you to hasten the torment (for them), and had it not been for a term appointed, the torment would certainly have come to them. And surely, it will come upon them suddenly while they are unaware! They ask you to hasten on the torment. And verily! Hell, of a surety, will encompass the disbelievers) (29:53-54). Ibn Abi Hatim reported from `Uqbah bin `Amir that the Messenger of Allah said:

« تَطْلُعُ عَلَيْكُمْ عِنْدَ السَّاعَةِ سَحَابَةٌ سَوْدَاءُ مِنَ الْمَغْرِبِ مِثْلَ التُّرْسِ، فَمَا تَزَالُ تَرْتَفِعُ فِي السَّمَاءِ ثُمَّ يُنَادِي مُنَادٍ فِيهَا: يَا أَيُّهَا النَّاسُ فَيُقْبِلُ النَّاسُ بَعْضُهُمْ عَلَى بَعْضٍ: هَلْ سَمِعْتُمْ، فَمِنْهُمْ مَنْ يَقُولُ: نَعَمْ، وَمِنْهُمْ مَنْ يَشُكُّ، ثُمَّ يُنَادِي الثَّانِيَةَ: يَا أَيُّهَا النَّاسُ فَيَقُولُ النَّاسُ بَعْضُهُمْ لِبَعْضٍ: هَلْ سَمِعْتُمْ، فَيَقُولُونَ: نَعَمْ، ثُمَّ يُنَادِي الثَّالِثَةَ: يَا أَيُّهَا النَّاسُ أَتَى أَمْرُ اللهِ فَلَا تَسْتَعْجِلُوه »

(When the Hour approaches, a black cloud resembling a shield will emerge upon from the west. It will continue rising in the sky, then a voice will call out, `O mankind!’ The people will say to one another, `Did you hear that’ Some will say, `yes’, but others will doubt it. Then a second call will come, `O mankind!’ The people will say to one another, `Did you hear that’ And they will say, `Yes.’ Then a third call will come, `O mankind!’ The Event ordained by Allah has indeed come, so do not seek to hasten it.’) The Messenger of Allah said:

« فَوَ الَّذِي نَفْسِي بِيَدِهِ، إِنَّ الرَّجُلَيْنِ لَيَنْشُرَانِ الثَّوبَ فَمَا يَطْوِيَانِهِ أَبَدًا، وَإِنَّ الرَّجُلَ لَيَمُدَّنَّ حَوْضَهُ فَمَا يَسْقِي فِيهِ شَيْئًا أَبَدًا، وَإِنَّ الرَّجُلَ لَيَحْلُبُ نَاقَتَهُ فَمَا يَشْرِبُهُ أَبَدًا قَالَ وَيَشْتَغِلُ النَّاس »

(By the One in Whose Hand is my soul, two men will spread out a cloth, but will never refold it; a man will prepare his trough, but will never water his animals from it; and a man will milk his camel, but will never drink the milk.” Then he said, “The people will be distracted.”) Then Allah tells us that He is free from their allegations of partners to their worship of idols, and making equals for Him. Glorified and exalted be He far above that. These are the people who deny the Hour, so He says:

﴿ سُبۡحَـٰنَهُ ۥ وَتَعَـٰلَىٰ عَمَّا يُشۡرِكُونَ

(Glorified and Exalted be He above all that they associate as partners with Him.)

﴿ يُنَزِّلُ ٱلۡمَلَـٰٓٮِٕكَةَ بِٱلرُّوحِ مِنۡ أَمۡرِهِۦ عَلَىٰ مَن يَشَآءُ مِنۡ عِبَادِهِۦۤ أَنۡ أَنذِرُوٓاْ أَنَّهُ ۥ لَآ إِلَـٰهَ إِلَّآ أَنَا۟ فَٱتَّقُونِ

(2. He sends down the angels with the Ruh (revelation) of His command to those servants of His whom He wills (saying): “Warn mankind that none has the right to be worshipped but I, so have Taqwa of Me.”)

ALLAH SENDS WHOMEVER HE WILLS WITH THE MESSAGE OF TAWHID
﴿ يُنَزِّلُ ٱلۡمَلَـٰٓٮِٕكَةَ بِٱلرُّوحِ

(He sends down the angels with the Ruh) refers to the revelation. This is like the Ayat:

﴿ وَكَذَٲلِكَ أَوۡحَيۡنَآ إِلَيۡكَ رُوحً۬ا مِّنۡ أَمۡرِنَا‌ۚ مَا كُنتَ تَدۡرِى مَا ٱلۡكِتَـٰبُ وَلَا ٱلۡإِيمَـٰنُ وَلَـٰكِن جَعَلۡنَـٰهُ نُورً۬ا نَّہۡدِى بِهِۦ مَن نَّشَآءُ مِنۡ عِبَادِنَا‌ۚ

(And thus We have sent to you a Ruh (revelation) by Our command. You knew not what is the Book, nor what is the faith. But We have made it a light by which We guide whomever We will among Our servants.) (43:52)

﴿ عَلَىٰ مَن يَشَآءُ مِنۡ عِبَادِهِۦۤ

(to those servants of His whom He wills) meaning the Prophets, as Allah says:

﴿ ٱللَّهُ أَعۡلَمُ حَيۡثُ يَجۡعَلُ رِسَالَتَهُ ۥ‌ۗ

(Allah best knows where to place His Message.) (6:124)

﴿ ٱللَّهُ يَصۡطَفِى مِنَ ٱلۡمَلَـٰٓٮِٕڪَةِ رُسُلاً۬ وَمِنَ ٱلنَّاسِ‌ۚ

(Allah chooses Messengers from angels and from men.) (22:75)

﴿ رَفِيعُ ٱلدَّرَجَـٰتِ ذُو ٱلۡعَرۡشِ يُلۡقِى ٱلرُّوحَ مِنۡ أَمۡرِهِۦ عَلَىٰ مَن يَشَآءُ مِنۡ عِبَادِهِۦ لِيُنذِرَ يَوۡمَ ٱلتَّلَاقِ يَوۡمَ هُم بَـٰرِزُونَۖ لَا يَخۡفَىٰ عَلَى ٱللَّهِ مِنۡہُمۡ شَىۡءٌ۬ۚ لِّمَنِ ٱلۡمُلۡكُ ٱلۡيَوۡمَۖ لِلَّهِ ٱلۡوَٲحِدِ ٱلۡقَهَّارِ

(He sends the Ruh (revelation) by His command to whoever among His servants He wills to, that he may warn of the Day of Meeting. The Day when they will (all) come out, nothing about them will be hidden from Allah. Whose is the kingdom this Day: It is Allah’s, the One, the Irresistible!) (40:15-16)

﴿ أَنۡ أَنذِرُوٓاْ

((saying): “Warn…”) meaning that they should alert them.

﴿ أَنَّهُ ۥ لَآ إِلَـٰهَ إِلَّآ أَنَا۟ فَٱتَّقُونِ

(that none has the right to be worshipped but I, so have Taqwa of Me.) means, `fear My punishment, if you go against My commands and worship anything other than Me.’

﴿ خَلَقَ ٱلسَّمَـٰوَٲتِ وَٱلۡأَرۡضَ بِٱلۡحَقِّ‌ۚ تَعَـٰلَىٰ عَمَّا يُشۡرِكُونَ خَلَقَ ٱلۡإِنسَـٰنَ مِن نُّطۡفَةٍ۬ فَإِذَا هُوَ خَصِيمٌ۬ مُّبِينٌ۬

(3. He has created the heavens and the earth with truth. High is He, Exalted above all that they associate as partners with Him.) (4. He has created man from a Nutfah, then behold, this same (man) becomes an open opponent.)

ALLAH IS THE ONE WHO HAS CREATED THE HEAVENS, THE EARTH, AND MAN

Allah tells us about His creation of the upper realm, which is the heavens, and the lower realm, which is the earth, and everything in them. They have been created for a true purpose, not in vain, so that

﴿ لِيَجۡزِىَ ٱلَّذِينَ أَسَـٰٓـُٔواْ بِمَا عَمِلُواْ وَيَجۡزِىَ ٱلَّذِينَ أَحۡسَنُواْ بِٱلۡحُسۡنَى

(He may requite those who do evil with that which they have done (i.e. punish them in Hell), and reward those who do good, with what is best (i.e. Paradise).)(53:31) Then He declares Himself to be above the Shirk of those who worship others besides Him. He is independent of His creation, alone with no partner or associate. For this reason He deserves to be worshipped Alone, without partners. Then He mentions how man has been created from a Nutfah, i.e., something that is insignificant, weak and has no value – but when man becomes independent and is able to fend for himself – then he begins to dispute with his Lord, may He be exalted, and disbelieves in Him and fights His Messengers. But man was created to be a servant, not an opponent, as Allah says:

﴿ وَهُوَ ٱلَّذِى خَلَقَ مِنَ ٱلۡمَآءِ بَشَرً۬ا فَجَعَلَهُ ۥ نَسَبً۬ا وَصِهۡرً۬ا‌ۗ وَكَانَ رَبُّكَ قَدِيرً۬ا وَيَعۡبُدُونَ مِن دُونِ ٱللَّهِ مَا لَا يَنفَعُهُمۡ وَلَا يَضُرُّهُمۡ‌ۗ وَكَانَ ٱلۡكَافِرُ عَلَىٰ رَبِّهِۦ ظَهِيرً۬ا

(And it is He Who has created man from water, and gave him descendants, and made Him kindred by marriage, and your Lord is capable (of all things). And they worship besides Allah, that which can neither profit them nor harm them; and the disbeliever is ever a helper (of Shaytan) against his Lord) (25: 54-55). And;

﴿ أَوَلَمۡ يَرَ ٱلۡإِنسَـٰنُ أَنَّا خَلَقۡنَـٰهُ مِن نُّطۡفَةٍ۬ فَإِذَا هُوَ خَصِيمٌ۬ مُّبِينٌ۬ وَضَرَبَ لَنَا مَثَلاً۬ وَنَسِىَ خَلۡقَهُ ۥ‌ۖ قَالَ مَن يُحۡىِ ٱلۡعِظَـٰمَ وَهِىَ رَمِيمٌ۬ قُلۡ يُحۡيِيہَا ٱلَّذِىٓ أَنشَأَهَآ أَوَّلَ مَرَّةٍ۬‌ۖ وَهُوَ بِكُلِّ خَلۡقٍ عَلِيمٌ

(Does not man see that We have created him from Nutfah. Yet, behold he stands as an open opponent. And he puts forth for Us a parable, and forgets his own creation. He says: “Who will give life to these bones after they are rotten and have become dust” Say: “He will give life to them Who created them the first time! And He is the knower of every creature!”) (36:77-79). Imam Ahmad and Ibn Majah reported that Busr bin Jahhash said: “The Messenger of Allah spat in his palm, then he said,

« يَقُولُ اللهُ تَعَالَى: ابْنَ آدَمَ أَنَّى تُعْجِزُنِي وَقَدْ خَلَقْتُكَ مِنْ مِثْلِ هَذِهِ، حَتَّى إِذَا سَوَّيْتُكَ فَعَدَلْتُكَ مَشَيْتَ بَيْنَ بُرْدَيْكَ وَلِلْأَرْضِ مِنْكَ وَئِيدٌ، فَجَمَعْتَ وَمَنَعْتَ حَتَّى إِذَا بَلَغَتِ الْحُلْقُومَ قُلْتَ: أَتَصَدَّقُ، وَأَنَّى أَوَانُ الصَّدَقَة »

(Allah, may He be exalted, says: “O son of Adam, how could you be more powerful than I when I have created you from something like this, and when I have fashioned you perfectly and made you complete, you walk wearing your two garments and the earth makes a sound (beneath your feet). You collect money but do not give anything to anyone, then when the soul of a dying person reaches the throat, you say, `I want to give in charity’, but it is too late for charity.”)

﴿ وَٱلۡأَنۡعَـٰمَ خَلَقَهَا‌ۗ لَڪُمۡ فِيهَا دِفۡءٌ۬ وَمَنَـٰفِعُ وَمِنۡهَا تَأۡڪُلُونَ وَلَكُمۡ فِيهَا جَمَالٌ حِينَ تُرِيحُونَ وَحِينَ تَسۡرَحُونَ وَتَحۡمِلُ أَثۡقَالَڪُمۡ إِلَىٰ بَلَدٍ۬ لَّمۡ تَكُونُواْ بَـٰلِغِيهِ إِلَّا بِشِقِّ ٱلۡأَنفُسِ‌ۚ إِنَّ رَبَّكُمۡ لَرَءُوفٌ۬ رَّحِيمٌ۬

(5. And the cattle, He has created them for you; in them there is warmth (warm clothing), and numerous benefits, and you eat from them.) (6. And there is beauty in them for you, when you bring them home in the evening, and as you lead them forth to pasture (in the morning).) (7. And they carry your loads to a land that you could not reach yourselves except with great trouble. Truly, your Lord is full of kindness, Most Merciful.)

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