http://www.recitequran.com/tafsir/en.ibn-kathir/6:1

http://www.recitequran.com/tafsir/en.ibn-kathir/6:1

6

AL-AN’AM

THE CATTLE

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Verse

1

Page 128

THE VIRTUE OF SURAT AL-AN`AM AND WHEN IT WAS REVEALED

Al-`Awfi, `Ikrimah and `Ata’ said that Ibn `Abbas said, “Surat Al-An`am was revealed in Makkah” At-Tabarani recorded that Ibn `Abbas said, “All of Surat Al-An`am was revealed in Makkah at night, accompanied by seventy thousand angels, raising their voices in glorification of Allah” As-Suddi said that Murrah said that `Abdullah said, “Surat Al-An`am was revealed in the company of seventy thousand angels.”

﴿ بِسۡمِ ٱللَّهِ ٱلرَّحۡمَـٰنِ ٱلرَّحِيمِ

In the Name of Allah, the Most Gracious, the Most Merciful.

﴿ ٱلۡحَمۡدُ لِلَّهِ ٱلَّذِى خَلَقَ ٱلسَّمَـٰوَٲتِ وَٱلۡأَرۡضَ وَجَعَلَ ٱلظُّلُمَـٰتِ وَٱلنُّورَ‌ۖ ثُمَّ ٱلَّذِينَ كَفَرُواْ بِرَبِّہِمۡ يَعۡدِلُونَ هُوَ ٱلَّذِى خَلَقَكُم مِّن طِينٍ۬ ثُمَّ قَضَىٰٓ أَجَلاً۬‌ۖ وَأَجَلٌ۬ مُّسَمًّى عِندَهُ ۥ‌ۖ ثُمَّ أَنتُمۡ تَمۡتَرُونَ وَهُوَ ٱللَّهُ فِى ٱلسَّمَـٰوَٲتِ وَفِى ٱلۡأَرۡضِ‌ۖ يَعۡلَمُ سِرَّكُمۡ وَجَهۡرَكُمۡ وَيَعۡلَمُ مَا تَكۡسِبُونَ

(1. All praise be to Allah, Who created the heavens and the earth, and originated the darkness and the light, yet those who disbelieve hold others as equal with their Lord.) (2. He it is Who has created you from clay, and then has decreed a stated term. And there is with Him another determined term, yet you doubt.) (3. And He is Allah, in the heavens and the earth, He knows what you conceal and what you reveal, and He knows what you earn.)

ALL PRAISE IS DUE TO ALLAH FOR HIS GLORIOUS ABILITY AND GREAT POWER

Allah praises and glorifies His Most Honorable Self for creating the heavens and earth, as a dwelling for His servants, and for making the darkness and the light to benefit them in the night and the day. In this Ayah, Allah describes darkness in the plural; Zulumat (where Zulmah is singular for darkness), while describing the light in the singular, An-Nur, because An-Nur is more honored. In other Ayat, Allah said,

﴿ ظِلَـٰلُهُ ۥ عَنِ ٱلۡيَمِينِ

(To the right and to the lefts.) (16:48) Near the end of this Surah (chapter 6), Allah also said;

﴿ وَأَنَّ هَـٰذَا صِرَٲطِى مُسۡتَقِيمً۬ا فَٱتَّبِعُوهُ‌ۖ وَلَا تَتَّبِعُواْ ٱلسُّبُلَ فَتَفَرَّقَ بِكُمۡ عَن سَبِيلِهِۦ‌ۚ

(And verily, this is my straight path, so follow it, and follow no (other) ways, for they will separate you away from His way.) (6:153) Allah said next,

﴿ ثُمَّ ٱلَّذِينَ كَفَرُواْ بِرَبِّہِمۡ يَعۡدِلُونَ

(Yet those who disbelieve hold others as equal with their Lord.) meaning, in spite of all this, some of Allah’s servants disbelieve in Him and hold others as partners and rivals with Him. Some of Allah’s servants claimed a wife and a son for Allah, hallowed be He far above what they attribute to Him. Allah’s statement,

﴿ هُوَ ٱلَّذِى خَلَقَكُم مِّن طِينٍ۬

(He it is Who has created you from clay,) refers to the father of mankind, Adam, from whom mankind originated, multiplied in numbers and spread about, east and west. Allah said,

﴿ ثُمَّ قَضَىٰٓ أَجَلاً۬‌ۖ وَأَجَلٌ۬ مُّسَمًّى عِندَهُ ۥ‌ۖ

(Then has decreed a stated term. And there is with Him another determined term…) His saying;

﴿ ثُمَّ قَضَىٰٓ أَجَلاً۬‌ۖ

(Then has decreed a stated term,) refers to death, while,

﴿ وَأَجَلٌ۬ مُّسَمًّى عِندَهُ ۥ‌ۖ

(And there is with Him another determined term…) refers to the Hereafter, according to Sa`id bin Jubayr who reported this from Ibn `Abbas. Similar statements were narrated from Mujahid, `Ikrimah, Sa`id bin Jubayr, Al-Hasan, Qatadah, Ad-Dahhak, Zayd bin Aslam, `Atiyyah, As-Suddi, Muqatil bin Hayyan and others. Ibn `Abbas and Mujahid said that,

﴿ ثُمَّ قَضَىٰٓ أَجَلاً۬‌ۖ

(And then has decreed a stated term,) is the term of this earthly life, while,

﴿ وَأَجَلٌ۬ مُّسَمًّى عِندَهُ ۥ‌ۖ

(And there is with Him another determined term) refers to man’s extent of life until he dies as mentioned in Allah’s statement;

﴿ وَهُوَ ٱلَّذِى يَتَوَفَّٮٰڪُم بِٱلَّيۡلِ وَيَعۡلَمُ مَا جَرَحۡتُم بِٱلنَّہَارِ

(It is He, Who takes your souls by night (when you are asleep), and has knowledge of all that you have done by day, then He raises (wakes) you up again that a term appointed (life) be fulfilled.) (6:60) The meaning of Allah’s statement,

﴿ عِندَهُ ۥ‌ۖ

(With Him) is that none but Him knows when it will occur. Allah said in other Ayat,

﴿ إِنَّمَا عِلۡمُهَا عِندَ رَبِّى‌ۖ لَا يُجَلِّيہَا لِوَقۡتِہَآ إِلَّا هُوَ‌ۚ

(The knowledge thereof is with my Lord. None can reveal its time but He.) (7:187), and,

﴿ يَسۡـَٔلُونَكَ عَنِ ٱلسَّاعَةِ أَيَّانَ مُرۡسَٮٰهَا فِيمَ أَنتَ مِن ذِكۡرَٮٰهَآ إِلَىٰ رَبِّكَ مُنتَہَٮٰهَآ

(They ask you about the Hour — when will be its appointed time You have no knowledge to say anything about it. To your Lord belongs (the knowledge of) the term thereof.) (79:42-44) Allah said,

﴿ ثُمَّ أَنتُمۡ تَمۡتَرُونَ

(Yet you doubt.) the coming of the (last) Hour, according to As-Suddi. Allah said next,

﴿ وَهُوَ ٱللَّهُ فِى ٱلسَّمَـٰوَٲتِ وَفِى ٱلۡأَرۡضِ‌ۖ يَعۡلَمُ سِرَّكُمۡ وَجَهۡرَكُمۡ وَيَعۡلَمُ مَا تَكۡسِبُونَ

(And He is Allah in the heavens and the earth, He knows what you conceal and what you reveal, and He knows what you earn.) Meaning, it is He Who is called Allah, throughout the heavens and the earth, that is, it is He who is worshipped, singled out, whose divinity is believed in by the inhabitants of the heavens and the earth. They call Him Allah, and they supplicate to Him in fear and hope, except those who disbelieve among the Jinns and mankind. In another Ayah, Allah said;

﴿ وَهُوَ ٱلَّذِى فِى ٱلسَّمَآءِ إِلَـٰهٌ۬ وَفِى ٱلۡأَرۡضِ إِلَـٰهٌ۬‌ۚ

(It is He Who is God in the heavens and the earth.) (43:84) meaning, He is the God of those in heaven and those on earth, and He knows all affairs, public and secret.

﴿ وَيَعۡلَمُ مَا تَكۡسِبُونَ

(And He knows what you earn) all the good and bad deeds that you perform.

﴿ وَمَا تَأۡتِيهِم مِّنۡ ءَايَةٍ۬ مِّنۡ ءَايَـٰتِ رَبِّہِمۡ إِلَّا كَانُواْ عَنۡہَا مُعۡرِضِينَ فَقَدۡ كَذَّبُواْ بِٱلۡحَقِّ لَمَّا جَآءَهُمۡ‌ۖ فَسَوۡفَ يَأۡتِيہِمۡ أَنۢبَـٰٓؤُاْ مَا كَانُواْ بِهِۦ يَسۡتَہۡزِءُونَ أَلَمۡ يَرَوۡاْ كَمۡ أَهۡلَكۡنَا مِن قَبۡلِهِم مِّن قَرۡنٍ۬ مَّكَّنَّـٰهُمۡ فِى ٱلۡأَرۡضِ مَا لَمۡ نُمَكِّن لَّكُمۡ وَأَرۡسَلۡنَا ٱلسَّمَآءَ عَلَيۡہِم مِّدۡرَارً۬ا وَجَعَلۡنَا ٱلۡأَنۡهَـٰرَ تَجۡرِى مِن تَحۡتِہِمۡ فَأَهۡلَكۡنَـٰهُم بِذُنُوبِہِمۡ وَأَنشَأۡنَا مِنۢ بَعۡدِهِمۡ قَرۡنًا ءَاخَرِينَ

(4. And never an Ayah comes to them from the Ayat of their Lord, but that they have been turning away from it.) (5. Indeed, they rejected the truth when it came to them, but there will come to them the news of that which they used to mock at.) (6. Have they not seen how many a generation before them We have destroyed whom We had established on the earth such as We have not established you And We poured out on them rain from the sky in abundance, and made the rivers flow under them. Yet We destroyed them for their sins, and created after them other generations.)

THREATENING THE IDOLATORS FOR THEIR STUBBORNNESS

Allah states that the rebellious, stubborn polytheists will turn away from every Ayah, meaning, sign, miracle and proof that is evidence of Allah’s Uniqueness and the truth of His honorable Messengers. They will not contemplate about these Ayat or care about them. Allah said,

﴿ فَقَدۡ كَذَّبُواْ بِٱلۡحَقِّ لَمَّا جَآءَهُمۡ‌ۖ فَسَوۡفَ يَأۡتِيہِمۡ أَنۢبَـٰٓؤُاْ مَا كَانُواْ بِهِۦ يَسۡتَہۡزِءُونَ

(Indeed, they rejected the truth when it came to them, but there will come to them the news of that which they used to mock at.) This Ayah contains a warning and a stern threat for the disbelievers’ rejection of the truth, stating that the disbelievers will surely know the truth of what they used to deny and taste the evil end of their behavior. Allah advises and warns the disbelievers, that they should avoid the torments and afflictions of this life, similar to what befell their likes from previous nations, who were stronger, wealthier, had more offspring, and were more exploitive on the earth. Allah said,

﴿ أَلَمۡ يَرَوۡاْ كَمۡ أَهۡلَكۡنَا مِن قَبۡلِهِم مِّن قَرۡنٍ۬ مَّكَّنَّـٰهُمۡ فِى ٱلۡأَرۡضِ مَا لَمۡ نُمَكِّن لَّكُمۡ

(Have they not seen how many a generation before them We have destroyed whom We had established on the earth such as We have not established you) meaning, they had more wealth, children, buildings, abundant provision, riches and soldiers. Allah said next,

﴿ وَأَرۡسَلۡنَا ٱلسَّمَآءَ عَلَيۡہِم مِّدۡرَارً۬ا

(and We poured out on them rain from the sky in abundance,) in reference to rain that comes often,

﴿ وَجَعَلۡنَا ٱلۡأَنۡهَـٰرَ تَجۡرِى مِن تَحۡتِہِمۡ

(And made the rivers flow under them.) as rain was abundant and the springs were plentiful, so that We deceived them.

﴿ فَأَهۡلَكۡنَـٰهُم بِذُنُوبِهِمۡ

(Yet We destroyed them for their sins) meaning the mistakes and errors that they committed,

﴿ وَأَنشَأۡنَا مِنۢ بَعۡدِهِمۡ قَرۡنًا ءَاخَرِينَ

(and created after them other generations,) for, these generations of old perished and became as legends and stories,

﴿ وَأَنشَأۡنَا مِنۢ بَعۡدِهِمۡ قَرۡنًا ءَاخَرِينَ

(And created after them other generations.) so that We test the new generations, as well. Yet, they committed similar errors and were destroyed, as their ancestors were destroyed. Therefore, beware of the same end that might befall you, for you are not dearer to Allah than these previous nations, but the Messenger whom you defied is dearer to Allah than the Messengers they defied. Thus, you are more liable than them to receive torment, if it was not for Allah’s mercy and kindness.

﴿ وَلَوۡ نَزَّلۡنَا عَلَيۡكَ كِتَـٰبً۬ا فِى قِرۡطَاسٍ۬ فَلَمَسُوهُ بِأَيۡدِيہِمۡ لَقَالَ ٱلَّذِينَ كَفَرُوٓاْ إِنۡ هَـٰذَآ إِلَّا سِحۡرٌ۬ مُّبِينٌ۬ وَقَالُواْ لَوۡلَآ أُنزِلَ عَلَيۡهِ مَلَكٌ۬‌ۖ وَلَوۡ أَنزَلۡنَا مَلَكً۬ا لَّقُضِىَ ٱلۡأَمۡرُ ثُمَّ لَا يُنظَرُونَ وَلَوۡ جَعَلۡنَـٰهُ مَلَڪً۬ا لَّجَعَلۡنَـٰهُ رَجُلاً۬ وَلَلَبَسۡنَا عَلَيۡهِم مَّا يَلۡبِسُونَ وَلَقَدِ ٱسۡتُہۡزِئَ بِرُسُلٍ۬ مِّن قَبۡلِكَ فَحَاقَ بِٱلَّذِينَ سَخِرُواْ مِنۡهُم مَّا ڪَانُواْ بِهِۦ يَسۡتَہۡزِءُونَ قُلۡ سِيرُواْ فِى ٱلۡأَرۡضِ ثُمَّ ٱنظُرُواْ ڪَيۡفَ كَانَ عَـٰقِبَةُ ٱلۡمُكَذِّبِينَ

(7. And even if We had sent down unto you a Message written on paper so that they could touch it with their hands, the disbelievers would have said: “This is nothing but obvious magic!”) (8. And they say: “Why has not an angel been sent down to him” Had We sent down an angel, the matter would have been judged at once, and no respite would be granted to them.) (9. And had We appointed him an angel, We indeed would have made him a man, and We would have certainly caused them confusion in a matter which they have already covered with confusion.) (10. And indeed Messengers were mocked before you, but their scoffers were surrounded by the very thing that they used to mock at.) (11. Say: “Travel in the land and see what was the end of those who rejected truth.”)

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