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W
ho Wrote the Qur’an
Who Wrote the Qur’an
17
Third Claim:
The Qur’an is the pure word of God hav
ing no human author
After having examined the theories that either Muhammad (Peace and Blessings be
upon him) wrote the Qur’an and that he got it from other sources and discussing the
flaws in those arguments, the logical question
beckons
that if Muhammad
(Peace and
Blessings be upon him) did not write the Qur’an nor get it from another human or collect
it from other sources, then where did it come from?
We must now examine the theory that says that the Qur’an is the word of God sent to
Muhammad (Peace
a
nd Blessings be upon him) and by extension that he is the
Messenger of God.
The Challenge
First of all, the Qur’an in several places challenges mankind by saying:
Say: “If the mankind and the jinns were together to produce the like of this
Qur’an, they
could not produce the like thereof, even if they helped one another.”
[
Qur’an
17:88
]
And if you (Arab pagans, Jews, and Christians) are in doubt concerning that
which We have sent down (i.e. the Qur’an) to Our slave (Muhammad, Peace be
upon him ), then
produce a surah (chapter) of the like thereof and call your
witnesses (supporters and helpers) besides Allah, if you are truthful
.
[
Qur’an
2:23
]
And this Qur’an is not such as could ever be produced by other than Allah (Lord
of the heavens and the earth),
but it is a confirmation of (the revelation) which
was before it [i.e. the Taurat (Torah), and the Injeel (Gospel), etc.], and a full
explanation of the Book (i.e. laws and orders, etc, decreed for mankind)
wherein
there is no doubt from the the Lord of
the
Worlds
. Or do they say: “He
(Muhammad, Peace be upon him)
has forged it?” Say: “Bring then a surah
(chapter) like it, and call upon whomsoever you can, besides Allah, if you are
truthful!”
[
Qur
an
10:37
38
]
Or they say, “He (Prophet Muhammad, peace b
e upon him) forged it
(the Qur’an)
.”
Say: “Bring you then ten forged surah (chapters) like unto it, and call
whomsoever you can, other than Allah (to your help), if you speak the truth!”
[
Qur
an
11:13
]
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W
ho Wrote the Qur’an
Who Wrote the Qur’an
18
Or do they say: “He
(Muhammad peace be upon him)
has
forged it
(this Qur’an)
?”
Nay! They believe not! Let them then produce a recital like unto it
if they are
truthful.
[
Qur
an
52:33
34
]
However, despite these repeated challenges, the Arabs who were at the height of their
poetic eloquence during the tim
e of revelation of the Qur’an still could not even produce
the shortest surah like it. Alqama bin
c
Abd al
Manaf confirmed this when he addressed
the Quraysh Tribe by saying:
Oh Quraish, a new calamity has befallen you. Mohammed was a young man the most
lik
ed among you, most truthful in speech, and most trustworthy, until, when you saw
gray hairs on his temple, and he brought you his message, you said that he was a
sorcerer, but he is not, for we
have
seen such people and their
spitting and their knots;
(i.e
., signs of people who engage in black magic)
you said, a
mystic
, but we have seen
such people and their behavior, and we have heard their rhymes; you said a
soothsayer, but he is not a soothsayer, for we have heard their rhymes; and you said a
poet, but h
e is not a poet, for we have heard all kinds of poetry; you said he was
possessed, but he is not for we have seen the possessed, and he shows no signs of
their gasping and whispering and delirium.
(signs of possession)
Oh men of Quraish,
look to your affai
rs, for by Allah a serious thing has befallen you.
This is a challenge that still stands today, as
no one
has met this challenge in the over
one thousand four hundred
(
1,400
)
years since it was first made
.
This is a point upon
which we ask the reader to p
onder.
Unmatched Eloquence
One of the most well
known stories of how the Qur’an’s miraculous eloquence effected
individuals is the story of al
Waleed ibn al
Mugheerah, who was the most eloquent and
highly esteemed poet of Makkah at the time of Muhammad (P
eace and Blessings be
upon him)
Al
Waleed ibn al
Mugheerah passed by Muhammad (Peace and Blessings be upon
him) and heard him reciting the Qur’an and this had a visible effect upon him. He was
shaken and startled by what he had heard. The news of this inc
ident spread throughout
Makkah.
Abu Jahl (the arch enemy of Islam) afraid that the people of Makkah might be affected
by the news and convert to Islam, rushed to al
Waleed and told him “Oh my uncle! Say
something (against Muhammad) so that the people wil
l know that you are against him
and hate (his message)”
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ho Wrote the Qur’an
Who Wrote the Qur’an
19
Al
Waleed replied, “And what can I say? For I swear by Allah, there is none amongst
you who knows poetry as well as I do, nor can any compete with me in composition or
rhetoric
not even in the poetry
of the jinns! And yet, I swear by Allah, Muhammad’s
speech (meaning the Qur’an) does not bear any similarity to anything I know and I
swear by Allah, the speech that he says is very sweet, and is adorned with beauty and
charm. Its first part is fruitful a
nd its last part is abundant (meaning that it is full of deep
meaning) and it conquers (all other speech) and remains unconquered! It shatters and
destroys all that has come before it (because of its eloquence)
Abu Jahl responded “Your people will not be
satisfied until you speak against him!” Al
Waleed therefore requested Abu Jahl “Leave me for a few days, so that I may think of
an appropriate response to give the Qur’aish”
After a few days, Abu Jahl came back to him and asked him what he had prepared. A
l
Waleed, during this time could not think of any explanation to give except “This (the
Qur’an) is a type of magic that has an effect on its listeners.”
Biography of Prophet Muhammad
, Ibn Hishaam p
.
225
In response to this God Revealed in the Qur’an:
Na
y! Verily, he
(al
Waleed)
has been stubborn and opposing our signs
….verily he
thought and plotted; so let him be cursed, how he plotted! And once more let him
be cursed; how he plotted! Then he thought! Then he frowned and was irritated;
then he turned bac
k and was proud! Then he said, ‘This is nothing but magic
from old; this is nothing but the word of a magician!’ I will cast him into the Hell
Fire
[
Qur
an
74:16
26
]
This was the testimony of the greatest poet alive during the time of Muhammad (Peace
and
Blessings be upon him)
Orientalist Author Arthur Arberry, who studied and became fluent in the Arabic language
while studying in Egypt recognized the beauty of the Qur’an.
He said:
“…the rhetoric and rhythm of the Arabic of the Qur’an are so characteristic
, so
powerful, so highl
y
emotive, that any version whatsoever is bound by the nature of
things to be but a copy of the glittering splendor of the original”
Arthur Arberry,
The Koran Interpreted
p
.
24
Many other non
Muslims have also confirmed the Qur’an’s
unmatched eloquence.
Hamilton Gibb, t
he famous
University of Oxford Arabist said
:
…the Meccans still demanded of him a miracle, and with remarkable boldness and self
confidence Mohammad appealed as a supreme confirmation of his mission to the Koran
itsel
f. Like all Arabs they were the connoisseurs of language and rhetoric. Well, then if
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ho Wrote the Qur’an
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20
the Koran were his own composition other men could rival it. Let them produce ten
verses like it. If they could not (and it is obvious that they could not), then let them
accept the Koran as an outstanding evident miracle
H A R Gibb,
Islam
A Historical Survey
,
1980
, Oxford University Press, p
.
28
Alfred Guillaume
wrote:
The Qur
an is one of the world’s classics which cannot be translated without grave loss.
It has a rhy
thm of peculiar beauty and a cadence that charms the ear. Many Christian
Arabs speak of its style with warm admiration, and most Arabists acknowledge its
excellence. When it is read aloud or recited it has an almost hypnotic effect that makes
the listener
indifferent to its sometimes strange syntax and its sometimes, to us,
repellent content. It is this quality it possesses of silencing criticism by the sweet music
of its language that has given birth to the dogma of its inimitability; indeed it may be
affi
rmed that within the literature of the Arabs, wide and fecund as it is both in poetry
and in elevated prose, there is nothing to compare with it
Alfred Guillaume
, Islam
,
1990
(
Reprinted
)
, Penguin Books, pp
.
73
74
It is a miracle in itself that for over o
ne thousand, four hundred years, this challenge to
match the Qur’an’s is still stands unmet today despite many failed attempts to do so.
Could a human being have known these things?
Although the Qur’an is a book of guidance for all of mankind and not a
science book ,
one of the great miracles of the Qur’an is its conformity with modern science. It is a sign
of its miraculous nature that it mentions things that no human being could have possibly
known one thousand four hundred
(
1,400
)
years ago
!
We will
give just a few examples
here with commentary from some modern scientists who have read the Qur’an and
compared it with science.
He creates you in the wombs of your mothers,
from one stage to another, and
all along three veils of darkness surrounded you
[
Qur
an
39:6
]
Dr. Keith Moore,
one of the world’s prominent scientists of anatomy and embryology at
the
University of Toronto
said:
“The realization that the embryo develops in stages in the uterus was not proposed
until
the
1940
‘s,
and the stages used n
owadays were not adopted worldwide until the
15
th
century C.E.”
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ho Wrote the Qur’an
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21
The Qur’an also says:
From what thing did He create him? From
Nutfa
(male and female semen drops)
He created him, and then set him in due proportion
.
[Qur’an
80:18
]
Commenting on this v
erse, Dr. Moore sa
id
:
“The idea that development results from a genetic plan contained in the chromosomes,
of the zygote was not discovered until the end of the
19
th century C
.
E
.
The verse from
the Qur’an
(
80:18
)
clearly implies that the nutfa
(
i
.
e
.
the in
itial drop of fluid) contains the
plan or blueprint for the future
characteristics and features of the developing human
being”.
Then We made the
Nutfa
into a clot
(a piece of thick coagulated blood),
then We
made the clot into a little lump of flesh, the
n We made out of that little lump of
flesh bones, then We clothed the bones with flesh, and then We brought it forth
as another creation. So blessed be Al
la
h, the Best of creators
.
[Qur’an
23:14
]
The best way to really appreciate the beauty of the verses
above is to see pictures of
the human embryo as it goes through the various stages of development. The reference
to
“…chewed lump of flesh”
is remarkably similar to the appearance of the embryo
after the first month.
Consider this in light of the fact tha
t if one reads what embryologists said on the subject
just one hundred years ago, one would laugh at its inaccuracies.
Some of the other facts given in the Qur
an include the formation of milk
(
16:66
)
, the
orbiting of planets
(
21:33
and
36:40
)
and the des
cription of the water cycle
(
15:22
and
35:9
)
Maurice Bucaille writes on this topic:
“The above observation makes the hypothesis advanced by those who see Muhammad
as the author of the Qur’an untenable. How could a man, from being illiterate, become
the m
ost important author, in terms of literary merits, in the whole of Arabic literature?
How could he then pronounce truths of a scientific nature that no other human being
could possibly have developed at that time, and all this without once making the
sligh
test error in his pronouncement on the subject?”
Maurice Bucaille,
The Bible, the Qur’an and Science
,
1978
, p
125
.
Professor Alfred Kroner
who is one of the world’s most famous geologists said:
“Thinking about many of these questions and thinking wher
e Muhammad came from, he
was after all a bedouin. I think it is almost impossible that he could have known about
things like the common origin of the universe, because scientists have only found out
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ho Wrote the Qur’an
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22
within the last few years with very complicated and advan
ced
technological methods
that this is the case
We ask the sincere reader to ponder on these facts
The Miracle
not limited by place and time
We mentioned in the introduction that every Prophet is sent with miracles to establish
his Prophethood.
Muhamm
ad (Peace and Blessings be upon him) performed many miracles which have
been documented by those who witnessed them such as the splitting of the moon, the
increase of an inadequate amount of food to a large number of people, and many other
miracles that we
re not permanent and could not be seen by every generation in every
place.
The Qur’an, however is the permanent miracle and it is not limited by time and place.
Generations far removed from Muhammad’s (Peace and Blessings be upon him) time
can witness it
for themselves.
Ibn Khaldoon, a renowned Muslim historian put it very beautifully when he said:
“Know that the greatest of all miracles, and the most sacred and blessed and the
clearest proof is the Qur’an that was revealed to the Prophet (Peace and Bles
sings be
upon him). This is because all other miracles, in general, were brought forth separate
from the actual inspiration (that the Prophet received), as a means of proving the
truthfulness of the inspiration. As for the Qur’an, it is the inspiration and
the miracle in
one, and is therefore the clearest and most powerful miracle, since it combines the
boast and the proof into one.”
Itr
, p
.
113
A
lso, we ask the reader to reflect on the following statement of Ibn Taymiyyah:
“The greatest
(of all the mirac
les)
is the Qur’an that the Prophet (Peace and Blessings
be upon him) came with, for it is the religion of God and His speech, and it is proof of
the Prophethood of Muhammad (Peace and Blessings be upon him). Its very revelation
is one of the most supernat
ural and extraordinary of acts, for it is the call
(to the worship
of God alone)
and the proof
(of the Prophethood of Muhammad, peace and blessings
be upon him)
and the miracle
(i.e., all in one)
Collection of Islamic Rulings
, vol
.
11
p
.
324
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ho Wrote the Qur’an
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23
The
L
ife
C
hanging
E
ffect
O
f
T
he Qur’an
The Qur’an says:
“Verily this Qur’an leads to that which is most right…”
[
Qur
an
17:9
]
The Qur’an is a book for all of mankind that is meant to reform the individual and even
the society. It changes the individual that is
devoid of guidance and improves an
individual if he is already on the straight path.
Before the Prophethood of Muhammad (Peace and Blessings be upon him) the Arabs
were heavy drinkers of alcohol, engage in tribal battles and even bury their female
babies
alive. Yet, when one studies the history of the Qur’an, one finds that within a
span of twenty years, due to the miraculous effect of the Qur’an, was able to change
almost all the Arabs and non
Arabs in the Arabian Peninsula and bind them into a
brotherho
od of faith and love that was so strong that if any part of the brotherhood
would anguish, the whole brotherhood was affected negatively.
These people became leaders of the world and cornerstones of a great civilization
whose influence would remain centur
ies
This effect lasted long after Muhammad’s (Peace and Blessings be upon him) death.
We see this in the following passage:
The sterling character and qualities of the Muslim soldiers were once praised by a
Roman Officer in these words: “At night you wil
l find them prayerful; during the day you
will find them fasting. They keep their promises, order good deeds, suppress evil and
maintain complete equality among themselves”
Another testified thus: “They are horsemen by day and ascetics by night. They pay
for
what they eat in territories under their occupation. They are first to salute when they
arrive at a place and are valiant fighters who just wipe out the enemy.”
And a third testified: “During the night it seems that they do not belong to this world an
d
have no other business than to pray, and during the day, when one sees them mounted
on their horses, one feels that they have been doing nothing else their whole lives. They
are great archers and great lancers, yet they are so devoutly religious and reme
mber
God so much and so often that one can hardly hear talk about anything else in their
company”
Ibn Kathir,
Bidayyah wa Nihayyah
pg
.
53
22
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ho Wrote the Qur’an
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24
Lack of Contradiction
The Qur’an challenges mankind by saying:
“Do they not then consider the Qur’an carefully?
Had it been from other than
Allah, they would surely have found therein much contradiction.”
[
4:82
]
The fact that there are no contradictions in the Qur’an, despite being revealed over the
twenty
three year period, under different circumstances, addressi
ng different problems,
is a clear indication to the sincere and objective reader of its divine origin.
The
Logical
Conclusion
We have established that the Qur’an could not have been written by Muhammad
(Peace and Blessings be upon him) nor did he learn i
t from someone else or collect it
from other sources. Are you, the reader, still in doubt about this?
We ask you, if you are still in doubt to then take up the challenge of the Qur’an itself and
prove it to be false.
Ponder upon that fact that
not one
o
f the legions of brilliant poets that have lived in the
past
1,400
years have been able to match the Qur
an beauty and eloquence despite
repeated challenges from the Qur’an to do so. And they
never
will.
Why are they not successful? Because the Qur’an is
indeed the word of God and who
can compete with God? God has told us in the Qur’an that they will never be able to do
it.
Say: “If the mankind and the jinns were together to produce the like of this
Qur’ân, they could not produce the like thereof, even i
f they helped one another.”
[Qur’an
17:88
]
In other words, the Qur’an itself has predicted that it will remain unparalleled and
unrivaled for all of eternity.
The futility of trying to match the Qur’an’s brilliance and eloquence has been foretold:
And i
f you are in doubt concerning that which We have sent down
(the Qur’an)
to
Our slave
(Muhammad Peace be upon him),
then produce a
Surah
(chapter)
of the
like thereof and call your witnesses
(supporters and helpers)
besides Allah, if you
are truthful.
But i
f you do
not do
it, and you can never do it, then fear the Fire
(Hell)
whose fuel is men and stones, prepared for the disbelievers.
[Qur’an
2:23
24
]
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ho Wrote the Qur’an
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25
The above is exactly what has occurred! None have been able to meet this challenge to
his day and they can
not do so.
Throughout this work, we have asked the sincere reader to ponder. We also stated in
the beginning that if we conclude that the Qur’an is the word of God, then we must by
extension accept the Messengership of Prophet Muhammad (Peace and Blessin
g be
upon him)
The rational criteria is at the sincere reader’s disposal, and one’s emotional commitment
to religion should be preceded by an intellectual commitment to it. Reason, in fact, is our
primary means for finding the Truth.
We can put any religi
on or system of beliefs to test by examining whether it is rational,
universal, applicable at all times, in all places, and by people of all colors and
languages, and whether the religion’s Scripture is free of alteration, internal and external
inconsisten
cies.
A scripture is internally inconsistent if it contains discrepancies and contradictions within
its text, and externally inconsistent if it contradicts
facts
(not theories) from science and
nature as we know them.
For it is impossible that God does n
ot know His creation or
that which He creates.
Our experience tells us that a few minutes of reasoning can usually leave us persuaded
in the truth of God’s absolute Oneness and Uniqueness, so what remains to be studied
is which religion is truly monotheis
tic in its nature.
One of the major criteria for distinguishing the Truth from errors, that we would like to
stress, is the authenticity of the religious scripture.
We have presented above indisputable proof that the Qur’an is the word of God.
The reali
ty is that Muslims are the only ones who even claim to have an authentic
scripture from God, in its original form, of which not a single letter has been changed.
Most other religions admit that their scriptures are in fact human writings.
And if we say
that there is a Truth and God, we are likely to believe that God wants us to do certain
things and abstain from others.
If we are of the view that God would not leave us without a reliable Revelation, then the
mere fact that Muslims are the only ones who
even claim to have an authentic
revelation could attest to the truthfulness of their claim.
However, as mentioned earlier, the Qur’an invites us to ponder and reason and to
accept faith based on knowledge, rather than the blind following of our traditio
ns.
24
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