http://www.recitequran.com/fr/tafsir/en.ibn-kathir/84:1

http://www.recitequran.com/fr/tafsir/en.ibn-kathir/84:1

84

AL-INSHIQAQ

LA DÉCHIRURE

Verset

1

Page 589

THE PROSTRATION OF RECITATION IN SURAT AL-INSHIQAQ

It is reported from Abu Salamah that while leading them in prayer, Abu Hurayrah recited,

﴿ إِذَا ٱلسَّمَآءُ ٱنشَقَّتۡ 

(When the heaven is split asunder.) And he prostrated during its recitation. Then when he completed the prayer, he informed them that the Messenger of Allah prostrated during its recitation. This was recorded by Muslim and An-Nasa’i on the authority of Malik. Al-Bukhari recorded from Abu Rafi` that he prayed the Night prayer with Abu Hurayrah) recited,

﴿ إِذَا ٱلسَّمَآءُ ٱنشَقَّتۡ 

(When the heaven is split asunder.) then he prostrated. So Abu Rafi` said something to him about it (questioning it). Abu Hurayrah replied, “I prostrated behind Abul-Qasim (the Prophet ), and I will never cease prostrating during its recitation until I meet him.”

﴿ بِسۡمِ ٱللَّهِ ٱلرَّحۡمَـٰنِ ٱلرَّحِيمِ 

In the Name of Allah, the Most Gracious, the Most Merciful.

﴿ إِذَا ٱلسَّمَآءُ ٱنشَقَّتۡ  وَأَذِنَتۡ لِرَبِّہَا وَحُقَّتۡ  وَإِذَا ٱلۡأَرۡضُ مُدَّتۡ  وَأَلۡقَتۡ مَا فِيہَا وَتَخَلَّتۡ  وَأَذِنَتۡ لِرَبِّہَا وَحُقَّتۡ  يَـٰٓأَيُّهَا ٱلۡإِنسَـٰنُ إِنَّكَ كَادِحٌ إِلَىٰ رَبِّكَ كَدۡحً۬ا فَمُلَـٰقِيهِ  فَأَمَّا مَنۡ أُوتِىَ كِتَـٰبَهُ ۥ بِيَمِينِهِۦ  فَسَوۡفَ يُحَاسَبُ حِسَابً۬ا يَسِيرً۬ا  وَيَنقَلِبُ إِلَىٰٓ أَهۡلِهِۦ مَسۡرُورً۬ا وَأَمَّا مَنۡ أُوتِىَ كِتَـٰبَهُ ۥ وَرَآءَ ظَهۡرِهِۦ  فَسَوۡفَ يَدۡعُواْ ثُبُورً۬ا  وَيَصۡلَىٰ سَعِيرًا  إِنَّهُ ۥ كَانَ فِىٓ أَهۡلِهِۦ مَسۡرُورًا  إِنَّهُ ۥ ظَنَّ أَن لَّن يَحُورَ  بَلَىٰٓ إِنَّ رَبَّهُ ۥ كَانَ بِهِۦ بَصِيرً۬ا 

(1. When the heaven is split asunder,) (2. And listens to and obeys its Lord — and it must do so.) (3. And when the earth is stretched forth,) (4. And has cast out all that was in it and became empty.) (5. And listens to and obeys its Lord — and it must do so.) (6. O man! Verily, you are returning towards your Lord with your deeds and actions, a sure returning, and you will meet.) (7. Then as for him who will be given his Record in his right hand,) (8. He surely will receive an easy reckoning,) (9. And will return to his family Masrur (in joy)!) (10. But whosoever is given his Record behind his back,) (11. He will invoke destruction,) (12. And he shall enter a blazing Fire, and made to taste its burning.) (13. Verily, he was among his people in joy!) (14. Verily, he thought that he would never return!) (15. Yes! Verily, his Lord has been ever beholding him!)

SPLITTING THE HEAVENS ASUNDER AND STRETCHING THE EARTH FORTH ON THE DAY OF RESURRECTION

Allah says,

﴿ إِذَا ٱلسَّمَآءُ ٱنشَقَّتۡ 

(When the heaven is split asunder,) This refers to the Day of Judgement.

﴿ وَأَذِنَتۡ لِرَبِّہَا 

(And listens to and obeys its Lord) meaning, it listens to its Lord and obeys His command to split apart. This will occur on the Day of Judgement.

﴿ وَحُقَّتۡ 

(and it must do so.) meaning, it is right for it to obey the command of its Lord, because it is great and cannot be rejected, nor overcome. Rather it overpowers everything and everything is submissive to it. Then Allah says,

﴿ وَإِذَا ٱلۡأَرۡضُ مُدَّتۡ 

(And when the earth is stretched forth,) meaning, when the earth is expanded, spread out and extended. Then He says,

﴿ وَأَلۡقَتۡ مَا فِيہَا وَتَخَلَّتۡ 

(And has cast out all that was in it and became empty.) meaning, it throws out the dead inside of it, and it empties itself of them. This was said by Mujahid, Sa`id, and Qatadah.

﴿ وَأَذِنَتۡ لِرَبِّہَا وَحُقَّتۡ 

(And listens to and obeys its Lord, and it must do so.) The explanation of this is the same as what has preceded.

THE RECOMPENSE FOR DEEDS IS TRUE

Allah says,

﴿ يَـٰٓأَيُّهَا ٱلۡإِنسَـٰنُ إِنَّكَ كَادِحٌ إِلَىٰ رَبِّكَ كَدۡحً۬ا 

(O man! Verily, you are returning towards your Lord with your deeds and actions, a sure returning,) meaning, `verily you are hastening to your Lord and working deeds.’

﴿ فَمُلَـٰقِيهِ 

(and you will meet.) `Then you will meet that which you did of good or evil.’ A proof for this is what Abu Dawud At-Tayalisi recorded from Jabir, that the Messenger of Allah said,

« قَالَ جِبْرِيلُ: يَا مُحَمَّدُ، عِشْ مَا شِئْتَ فَإِنَّكَ مَيِّتٌ، وَأَحْبِبْ (مَنْ) شِئْتَ فَإِنَّكَ مُفَارِقُهُ، وَاعْمَلْ مَا شِئْتَ فَإِنَّكَ مُلَاقِيه »

(Jibril said, “O Muhammad! Live how you wish, for verily you will die; love what you wish, for verily you will part with it; and do what you wish, for verily you will meet it (your deed).) There are some people who refer the pronoun back to the statement “your Lord.” Thus, they hold the Ayah to mean, “and you will meet your Lord.” This means that He will reward you for your work, and pay you for your efforts. Therefore, both of these two views are connected. Al-`Awfi recorded from Ibn `Abbas that he said explaining,

﴿ يَـٰٓأَيُّهَا ٱلۡإِنسَـٰنُ إِنَّكَ كَادِحٌ إِلَىٰ رَبِّكَ كَدۡحً۬ا 

(O man! Verily, you are returning towards your Lord with your deeds and actions, a sure returning,) “Whatever deed you do, you will meet Allah with it, whether it is good or bad.”

THE PRESENTATION AND THE DISCUSSION THAT WILL TAKE PLACE DURING THE RECKONING

Then Allah says,

﴿ فَأَمَّا مَنۡ أُوتِىَ كِتَـٰبَهُ ۥ بِيَمِينِهِۦ  فَسَوۡفَ يُحَاسَبُ حِسَابً۬ا يَسِيرً۬ا 

(Then as for him who will be given his Record in his right hand, he surely, will receive an easy reckoning,) (84:7-8) meaning, easy without any difficulty. This means that he will not be investigated for all the minute details of his deeds. For verily, whoever is reckoned like that, he will certainly be destroyed. Imam Ahmad recorded from `A’ishah that the Messenger of Allah said,

« مَنْ نُوقِشَ الْحِسَابَ عُذِّب »

(Whoever is interrogated during the reckoning, then he will be punished.) `A’ishah then said, “But didn’t Allah say,

﴿ فَسَوۡفَ يُحَاسَبُ حِسَابً۬ا يَسِيرً۬ا 

(He surely will receive an easy reckoning,)” The Prophet replied,

« لَيْسَ ذَاكِ بِالْحِسَابِ، وَلَــكِنْ ذلِكِ الْعَرْضُ، مَنْ نُوقِشَ الْحِسَابَ يَوْمَ الْقِيَامَةِ عُذِّب »

(That is not during to the Reckoning, rather it is referring to the presentation. Whoever is interrogated during the Reckoning on the Day of Judgement, then he will be punished.) This Hadith has also been recorded by Al-Bukhari, Muslim, At-Tirmidhi, An-Nasa’i and Ibn Jarir. In reference to Allah’s statement,

﴿ وَيَنقَلِبُ إِلَىٰٓ أَهۡلِهِۦ مَسۡرُورً۬ا 

(And will return to his family Masrur!) This means that he will return to his family in Paradise. This was said by Qatadah and Ad-Dahhak. They also said, “Masrur means happy and delighted by what Allah has given him.” Allah said;

﴿ وَأَمَّا مَنۡ أُوتِىَ كِتَـٰبَهُ ۥ وَرَآءَ ظَهۡرِهِۦ 

(But whosoever is given his Record behind his back,) meaning, he will be given his Book in his left hand, behind his back, while his hand is bent behind him.

﴿ فَسَوۡفَ يَدۡعُواْ ثُبُورً۬ا 

(He will invoke destruction,) meaning, loss and destruction.

﴿ وَيَصۡلَىٰ سَعِيرًا  إِنَّهُ ۥ كَانَ فِىٓ أَهۡلِهِۦ مَسۡرُورًا 

(And he shall enter a blazing Fire, and made to taste its burning. Verily, he was among his people in joy!) meaning, happy. He did not think about the consequences, nor feared what (future) was in front of him. His light happiness will be followed by long grief.

﴿ إِنَّهُ ۥ ظَنَّ أَن لَّن يَحُورَ 

(Verily, he thought that he would never return!) meaning, he used to believe that he would not return to Allah, nor would Allah bring him back (to life) after his death. This was said by Ibn `Abbas, Qatadah and others. Allah then says,

﴿ بَلَىٰٓ إِنَّ رَبَّهُ ۥ كَانَ بِهِۦ بَصِيرً۬ا 

(Yes! Verily, his Lord has been ever beholding him!) meaning, certainly Allah will repeat his creation just as he began his creation, and He will reward him based upon his deeds, whether they were good or bad. He was ever watchful of him, meaning All-Knowing and All-Aware.

﴿ فَلَآ أُقۡسِمُ بِٱلشَّفَقِ  وَٱلَّيۡلِ وَمَا وَسَقَ  وَٱلۡقَمَرِ إِذَا ٱتَّسَقَ  لَتَرۡكَبُنَّ طَبَقًا عَن طَبَقٍ۬  فَمَا لَهُمۡ لَا يُؤۡمِنُونَ  وَإِذَا قُرِئَ عَلَيۡہِمُ ٱلۡقُرۡءَانُ لَا يَسۡجُدُونَ ۩  بَلِ ٱلَّذِينَ كَفَرُواْ يُكَذِّبُونَ  وَٱللَّهُ أَعۡلَمُ بِمَا يُوعُونَ  فَبَشِّرۡهُم بِعَذَابٍ أَلِيمٍ  إِلَّا ٱلَّذِينَ ءَامَنُواْ وَعَمِلُواْ ٱلصَّـٰلِحَـٰتِ لَهُمۡ أَجۡرٌ غَيۡرُ مَمۡنُونِۭ 

(16. But no! I swear by Ash-Shafaq;) (17. And the night and what it Wasaqa,) (18. And the moon when it Ittasaq.) (19. You shall certainly travel from stage to stage.) (20. What is the matter with them, that they believe not) (21. And when the Qur’an is recited to them, they fall not prostrate.) (22. Nay, those who disbelieve deny.) (23. And Allah knows best what they gather,) (24. So, announce to them a painful torment.) (25. Save those who believe and do righteous good deeds, for them is a reward that will never come to an end.)

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